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    Oilfield Technology – The only way to P&A

    Integrity and corrosion assessment for successful slot recovery and plugging & abandonment (P&A) applications Article featured in Oilfield Technology   For all plug and abandonment applications, either permanent or for slot recovery, the sealing performance of well system components needs to be assured, and remain intact.    Well systems are complex and need to work perfectly to perform safely, cleanly, and productively. Understanding the condition and sealing performance of well system barriers can be challenging once the well has been brought onstream and access to these elements and components is restricted.     Current mainstream technologies only provide partial answers, leading to an incomplete assessment. However, through-barrier diagnostics look at the well system in a far more holistic and uncompromising way. These technologies have the capability of seeing through multiple barriers to provide a more complete picture of the condition of the metal tubulars and the flow around them to see if the seals are holding, prior to plug and abandonment.     In the case of permanent abandonment, natural barriers that prevent the movement or migration of downhole fluids, must be restored. And the performance of the well system barriers  must remain intact indefinitely.     In the case of slot recovery, the well components must be in good enough condition to be used again for the upcoming production cycle.   A comprehensive integrity assessment is required for either scenario.  Optimising P&A operations Planning and executing a flawless plug and abandonment requires prior knowledge of the integrity of the well barriers, and the precise position of all downhole completion elements. Operators armed with this information can determine the location of the permanent plugs and the best depths for the casing cuts for an optimised retrieval procedure.     During the productive life of a well it may experience several operator changes, perhaps after concessions expire or following divestment decisions. This can often lead to historical data being lost which, when it comes to well decommissioning, can increase the potential for making decisions without knowing all the facts about the well system, particularly the position of the casing collars, fins, centralisers or other components that impede successful decommissioning.     Using a simple multifinger caliper or an ultrasound survey, the location of the first-barrier casing collars can be determined, but the locations of the collars in the subsequent casing strings remain unknown. This approach contains an element of risk and may result in a cut planned directly in line with a thick section of metal, like a casing collar, or fin. Cutting across a collar or a fin, would mean an increase in the rig and intervention time of several hours, or potentially days.    TGT’s Multi Tube Integrity product uses the Pulse electromagnetic sensing platform to provide accurate barrier-by barrier assessment of up to four concentric tubulars (up to 20” diameter) in one single through-tubing deployment. Pulse can also pinpoint to within 1ft the location of completion elements.    The ‘electromagnetic signature’ of each tube or metal completion component, contains information about its wall thickness. The Pulse platform harnesses this information and through 3D modeling, can decipher metal loss as well as metal gain, in multiple casing strings throughout the entire well system.     Pulse can identify the location of known completion elements, but also identify new ones, not expected including welded fins on the outer casing string, often inaccessible to other evaluation technologies.     If Multi Tube Integrity is used prior to the P&A planning, the diagnostic results would remove the uncertainty allowing operators to confirm the optimum cutting window location in all casings, thus minimising the intervention time and reducing rig time and costs.  Integrity & corrosion assessment for slot recovery Slot recovery offers operators a way of capitalising on existing assets, by providing a new means of extending a well’s productive life.     It is a robust solution which utilises the existing surface and downhole infrastructure, to create a “new” offshoot well, which would reduce the costs associated with drilling. However, before this can become a reality, the inspection of downhole completion elements such as surface casing and its cemented annulus are a must.     Limitations in current technologies have meant that barrier verification is performed while the rig is in place, and once the tubulars (production and intermediate casings) have been retrieved.     Key input parameters, such as the cement condition and the integrity of the casing are obtained at the last stage of the planning. The late arrival of this critical information results in a complex well intervention plan, with several contingent scenarios based on a range of potential outcomes from the downhole integrity assessment.     The industry is calling for a new solution. One which can determine the condition and sealing performance of the cement and the metal barriers, prior to planning the slot recovery.  Pulse data showing wall thickness, collars and completion elements in 5 ½ in., 9 5/8 in., 13 3/8 in. and 20 in. tubulars. A powerful diagnostic combination TGT’s Multi Tube Integrity product used together with the Multi Seal Integrity product is the answer. This powerful combination utilises TGT’s Pulse electromagnetic platform, the Chorus acoustic platform and the Indigo multisense platform, and it can be deployed in one through-tubing deployment.   Pulse is used to evaluate the metal thickness of multiple tubulars, including the surface casing. It also has the unique capability of being able to confirm the position of critical completion components, including collars, centralisers, and casing shoes.   Chorus is used to assess the hydraulic seal integrity of the cement barrier to determine where the cement is sealing and where it is not. Fluid flow in the well system creates a rich spectrum of acoustic energy that penetrates the surroundings. This acoustic wave is encoded with information that Chorus can convert into acoustic spectra that can locate leaks and flowpaths throughout the well system, from the wellbore to the outer annuli.   The Pulse, Chorus and Indigo platforms are part of TGT’s True Integrity System which provides a clear diagnosis of integrity dynamics throughout the well system. The key to success It is critical that before slot recovery can be executed, there is an understanding of the collective integrity of the tubes, seals and barriers of the mother well. Only in doing this can there be a guarantee of the secure passage for pressurised fluids.   The key to success for any P&A or slot recovery operation is knowing all the facts about the integrity of the well system prior to planning and execution. This delivers the potential to reduce costs, minimise schedule overruns, and ensures the integrity of the final outcome.

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    Case studies
    Case Study Collars Tube Integrity

    Challenge In cyclic steam stimulation and steam-assisted gravity drainage, the reservoir fluids are heated through steam flooding to increase the mobility of heavy oils.   The steam is transported to the reservoir through the producing well. Consequently, the well’s casing metals and cement sheath are exposed to temperatures up to 300°C.   A common problem in cyclic steam injection operations is the failure of casing connections due to induced coaxial stress, which requires quick and reliable verification. To optimise cost operators need to identify issues downhole, such as casing collar breaks, without retrieving/pulling the tubing. In this case, an operator in northeastern Alberta, Canada, wanted to check the integrity of a producing well with 73 mm tubing inside a 168.3 mm slotted liner. Well sketch shows a range of typical collar condition scenarios that Collars Tube Integrity can diagnose. Solution The operator selected TGT’s Collars Tube Integrity product to provide an accurate assessment of the casing connections in the well through tubing.   Powered by TGT’s True Integrity diagnostic system using the Pulse (electromagnetic) platform, Collars Tube Integrity reveals collar condition from a single through-tubing deployment. Collars Tube Integrity can be used to investigate a specific integrity breach or routinely to support ongoing integrity management programs. Its ability to assess up to four concentric tubulars simultaneously means that most of the collars can be evaluated in a single deployment.   TGT’s diagnostic systems combine several proprietary technology platforms that share a common structure and four-stage workflow: programs and methods; tools and measurements; processing and modeling; and analysis and interpretation. Pulse technology showing its capability to differentiate between standard collars and CRA collars. Result In the subject well, Collars Tube Integrity located a casing break (see Line A) that coincided with the depths of collars (Figure 1). The Operator confirmed this when forced to pull the tubing to run a Multi-Finger Caliper (MFC) in casing.   The Collar Tube Integrity data acquisition and processing approach enabled time and resource optimisation by indicating the location and severity of casing collar breaks while the completion was still in the hole. This resulted in more focused well intervention planning and resource allocation. Over the past five years, the technique has been successfully applied in more than 100 wells across the province of Alberta and identified multiple casing collar breaks in single runs.

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    Case studies
    Case Study Fracture Flow

    Challenge Multistage fracturing is an effective stimulation technique for heterogeneous, low-permeability oil reservoirs. However, after a fracturing campaign, there may be a risk of increased communication between the water-bearing formation, which may cause a high water cut in the stimulated well.   In this case from the Volga-Ural region of Russia, the operator wanted to identify unexpected water sources in a horizontal well in a low-permeability carbonate reservoir. The well had been subjected to a multistage acid fracturing job and it was necessary to determine the most effective strategy for a workover to shut off the water producing zones. Well sketch shows flow scenarios before and after fracturing that Fracture Flow can evaluate. Fracture Flow provides the clarity and insight needed to manage well system performance more effectively. Solution The operator selected TGT’s Fracture Flow product to understand the flow dynamics of the well system and identify the water sources. Fracture Flow is delivered by the True Flow diagnostic system. TGT’s diagnostic systems combine several proprietary technology platforms that share a common structure and workflow comprising programs and methods; tools and measurements; processing and modeling; and analysis and interpretation.   The Chorus (acoustic) platform records and analyses the acoustic energy produced by fluid flow; its role in this case was to help pinpoint unexpected flow activity behind casing. The Fracture Flow product uses a multi-sensor tool, adopts a unique data acquisition programme and utilises a processing and modelling software plugin which varies from the other True Flow products.   In combination, the technique is able to identify the location and determine the distance of the acoustic signal from the receiver. It is therefore able to distinguish reservoir flows from those generated by completion leaks. Integrated logging suite results: Acoustic signal source identification Result An acoustic signal was recorded in a narrow interval above the target reservoir. This signal had a broadband spectrum that could have been generated by reservoir flow or by a completion leak (see Line A in Figure 1).   Taking into consideration the well design and the acoustic wave propagation in the wellbore and rocks, TGT’s Chorus diagnostics determined that the location of the acoustic source extended beyond the wellbore. It was deduced that the signal was generated by turbulent flow from an unexpected fracture above the target reservoir. The inflow fluid from this unwanted fracture flowed back down the well completion, entering the wellbore through the topmost perforation. It was this rogue fracture that was the cause of water in the well production.   Thanks to Fracture Flow’s diagnostic results, the operator changed the hydraulic fracturing design programme, to optimise production while preventing the reoccurrence of rogue fractures in the future.

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    Improved Asset Performance

    Improved asset performance for operators made possible by new approach to well diagnostics. TGT, the category leader in through-barrier diagnostics for the oilfield services market today unveiled one of the most radical business transformations in its sector. Motivated by a singular purpose – to reveal a greater truth – the company turns the industry’s way of doing business on its head; shifting the commercial approach from ‘logging tools’ to ‘Flow’ and ‘Integrity’ application-led ‘Products’.   “We’ve been pioneering advances in well diagnostics for 20-years and built an extensive portfolio of products, technology and customers,” said Mohamed Hegazi, TGT’s chief executive officer. “Our new offering will transform how our customers manage their wells, enable much better decision-making and boost asset performance”.   TGT has structured its new product-led offering in two domains—True Flow and True Integrity, each being a practical and symbolic extension of its ‘greater truth’ brand promise, and representative of what customers demand from their well systems.   “All well systems are built to connect the right fluids to the right places,” continued Mohamed. “Flow and integrity are intimately linked and essential for safe and productive operations.   That’s why we’ve organised our business in to these two domains. This business approach means our products and diagnostic systems are relevant to all wells throughout their lifecycle.”   “Tools are important but well systems are complex so accurate diagnostics require a more powerful approach. We have perfected ‘diagnostic systems’ that combine remarkable tools with the right methods, data processing and expert analysis to deliver accurate answers.” said Ken Feather, TGT’s chief marketing officer. “Operators need answers they can trust, so we developed a complete range for every eventuality.” continued Ken.   TGT’s new diagnostic systems use five proprietary technology platforms: Chorus, Cascade, Pulse, Indigo and Maxim, in various combinations to make the products.   “This exciting change marks a strategic pivot in our future direction as an oilfield service company,” added Ken. “The industry needs a fresh approach, and our new offering supported by a totally new and distinctive brand identity provides an incredible potential to grow.”   With its transformation efforts successfully implemented, TGT is now focused on championing the new through-barrier diagnostics category to help operators manage safe, productive and profitable wells. Among other developments, TGT expects to launch further new products and system advances throughout 2019. New product-led offering centres on two domains: Flow and Integrity Making their transformed debut are TGT’s five diagnostic platforms: Chorus, Cascade, Pulse, Indigo and Maxim About the new TGT brand identity The striking new brand identity, developed in collaboration with Handsome Brands, reflects all aspects of TGT’s new brand platform. It has been engineered to be distinctive and memorable and provide an important signposting function to help customers navigate through the offering.   The new portfolio of products and diagnostic systems is structured in two primary domains – True Flow and True Integrity, each representing the two most important performance factors for all well systems. Circles and squares have been used together with distinct colour palettes to create unique identifiable dynamic patterns that represent Flow and Integrity. Building on this, priority colours from each palette are used to signify the three main tiers of the brand system, namely, Corporate, Products, and Systems.   At corporate level, all the colours and patterns come together as one.   TGT’s brandmark has been simplified and strengthened in line with the clean and simplified approach of the new brand.

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    TGT logs growth despite downturn

    The company’s vision and motivator is the thirst for a greater knowledge of the well system, which combines the well completion and reservoir TGT Oilfield Services, the market leader in through-barrier diagnostics for the oilfield, has grown year-on-year even during the downturn and the company expects to see an improvement in both activity levels and pricing as the industry stabilises further.   "Despite the drop in oil price, the demand for TGT diagnostic services grew significantly. Our focus on technology and applications that diagnose the performance and integrity of existing wells is exactly what our clients needed during the tough budget years.   "We expect that need to continue. We protect our market share and growth by continuing to fund technology development despite the market climate. Customers recognise the depth of our technical and sub surface knowledge, which has been built up over the last 20 years," says Maged Yassin, business unit manager, TGT Saudi Arabia. The company’s vision and motivator is the thirst for a greater knowledge of the well system, which combines the well completion and reservoir. This speaks for itself when one considers that more than a third of its headcount is dedicated to R&D and technology development, says Yassin.   Recently, TGT migrated its sensors to a custom-built ‘low-noise’ hardware – Indigo – designed to operate at ‘low noise’ so not to interfere with its acoustic-based ‘spectral’ and electromagnetic-based ‘EmPulse’ diagnostic systems.   Additionally, the company added a real-time capability to its fleet of through-barrier diagnostic systems. The new real-time technology enables well data to be viewed and analysed at surface during the execution of well diagnostic programmes without compromising on measurement fidelity. "We never stop, continuously improving our services and our offerings," says Yassin.   TGT provides a wide range of through-barrier diagnostics. Patented technologies are deployed on any conveyance and sense beyond the well bore to answer multiple reservoir flow and well integrity questions. The company offers these services in Saudi Arabia via in-country assets, geoscience and advanced interpretation as well as business development and field operations. TGT was founded on research and development. "Our technologies include advanced flow profiling deep into the reservoir, unconventional and fracture flow, multi annuli leak detection and multi barrier corrosion among others. We pride ourselves not only on equipment technology but also advanced geoscience and interpretation capabilities," he says.   "Saudi Arabia represents one of our most significant markets," he says. TGT has in place a stringent Saudisation development plan and technical knowledge transfer through academia alliances. Referring to Saudi Aramco’s In-Kingdom Total Value Add (IKTVA) plan, he says the published target is 35 per cent by 2020. "TGT will comply with or exceed these targets on all fronts (equipment, human capital, safety and environment) as we establish ourselves further in the kingdom," he asserts. On the company’s relationship with Saudi Aramco, he says Aramco is a highly sophisticated organisation, with a strong emphasis on strategic planning to optmise operations.   "Our relationship, like with all our customers, is built on a foundation technical competence, respect for the accuracy of the results we provide and our service delivery. We ensure we understand the customer’s challenges before designing a bespoke programme to determine the answers they seek," he says.   Referring to business growth, Yassin says business has gradually improved in the last two years in terms of activity.   Pricing of services remains a challenge. The significant rebound of oil price will soon cascade to the market to ensure continued technology development and growth.   "TGT Saudi Arabia is one of our key dedicated business units, supported by a solid global infrastructure. While we continue to expand our global footprint, we will ensure we stay focused on our customers, proving the quality of our diagnostic results, striving to set ourselves apart from our competition," he says.

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    TGT News – TGT logs growth despite downturn (Sept 2018)

    The company’s vision and motivator is the thirst for a greater knowledge of the well system, which combines the well completion and reservoir TGT Oilfield Services, the market leader in through-barrier diagnostics for the oilfield, has grown year-on-year even during the downturn and the company expects to see an improvement in both activity levels and pricing as the industry stabilises further.   "Despite the drop in oil price, the demand for TGT diagnostic services grew significantly. Our focus on technology and applications that diagnose the performance and integrity of existing wells is exactly what our clients needed during the tough budget years.   "We expect that need to continue. We protect our market share and growth by continuing to fund technology development despite the market climate. Customers recognise the depth of our technical and sub surface knowledge, which has been built up over the last 20 years," says Maged Yassin, business unit manager, TGT Saudi Arabia. The company’s vision and motivator is the thirst for a greater knowledge of the well system, which combines the well completion and reservoir. This speaks for itself when one considers that more than a third of its headcount is dedicated to R&D and technology development, says Yassin.   Recently, TGT migrated its sensors to a custom-built ‘low-noise’ hardware – Indigo – designed to operate at ‘low noise’ so not to interfere with its acoustic-based ‘spectral’ and electromagnetic-based ‘EmPulse’ diagnostic systems.   Additionally, the company added a real-time capability to its fleet of through-barrier diagnostic systems. The new real-time technology enables well data to be viewed and analysed at surface during the execution of well diagnostic programmes without compromising on measurement fidelity. "We never stop, continuously improving our services and our offerings," says Yassin.   TGT provides a wide range of through-barrier diagnostics. Patented technologies are deployed on any conveyance and sense beyond the well bore to answer multiple reservoir flow and well integrity questions. The company offers these services in Saudi Arabia via in-country assets, geoscience and advanced interpretation as well as business development and field operations. TGT was founded on research and development. "Our technologies include advanced flow profiling deep into the reservoir, unconventional and fracture flow, multi annuli leak detection and multi barrier corrosion among others. We pride ourselves not only on equipment technology but also advanced geoscience and interpretation capabilities," he says.   "Saudi Arabia represents one of our most significant markets," he says. TGT has in place a stringent Saudisation development plan and technical knowledge transfer through academia alliances. Referring to Saudi Aramco’s In-Kingdom Total Value Add (IKTVA) plan, he says the published target is 35 per cent by 2020. To celebrate, TGT invited employees, customers, and business partners to an evening which relived the company’s scientific breakthroughs using acoustic, thermal and electromagnetic energy to reveal unique answers within and beyond the well bore.   Dr. Arthur Aslanyan, TGT’s Co-Founder commented, “It gave me great pride to attend the event and celebrate the company's 20th anniversary. We have come a long way since we first started the business. We are very excited about our future as the company continues to thrive”.   The event was attended by Saad Bargach, TGT Chairman and LimeRock Partners -private equity investors.   Hegazi continued, “Looking to our future, TGT is releasing several lines of new technologies and applications in coming months to further cement our position as pioneers of Through-Barrier Diagnostics. Our patent technology developments coupled with our unrivalled Geoscience organisation and global footprint, provide unique and reliable diagnostic services to our customers. This has been key in maintaining our fast growth trend and industry reputation. I am confident this foundation along with our excellent teams, will continue to fuel our growth for many years to come. "TGT will comply with or exceed these targets on all fronts (equipment, human capital, safety and environment) as we establish ourselves further in the kingdom," he asserts. On the company’s relationship with Saudi Aramco, he says Aramco is a highly sophisticated organisation, with a strong emphasis on strategic planning to optmise operations.   "Our relationship, like with all our customers, is built on a foundation technical competence, respect for the accuracy of the results we provide and our service delivery. We ensure we understand the customer’s challenges before designing a bespoke programme to determine the answers they seek," he says.   Referring to business growth, Yassin says business has gradually improved in the last two years in terms of activity.   Pricing of services remains a challenge. The significant rebound of oil price will soon cascade to the market to ensure continued technology development and growth.   "TGT Saudi Arabia is one of our key dedicated business units, supported by a solid global infrastructure. While we continue to expand our global footprint, we will ensure we stay focused on our customers, proving the quality of our diagnostic results, striving to set ourselves apart from our competition," he says.

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    Case studies
    Case Study Total Flow

    Challenge Petroleum and reservoir engineers determine that if water is injected at a particular pressure, then target reservoirs will receive a certain volume of water over time. If the predicted flow rate isn’t observed, then either something is wrong with the assumptions, or something is wrong with the well system—or both. Even worse, the predicted flow rate may be within range, but the water may not be reaching the target. The latter scenario is particularly insidious because it may be weeks, months or longer before an alarm is raised.   An operator was experiencing injection issues and needed to confirm whether the injected water was reaching the target reservoir. Total Flow locates and quantifies wellbore and reservoir flow, and reveals the relationship between the two. Solution TGT’s ‘Total Flow’ product was selected to explain the flow dynamics of the well system and uncover where the injected water was ultimately going. Total Flow is delivered by the ‘True Flow’ diagnostic system.   TGT’S diagnostic systems combine technology platforms that share a common structure and workflow, namely ‘programmes & methods’, ‘tools & measurements’, ‘processing & modeling’ and ‘analysis & interpretation’.   The True Flow diagnostic system uses four platforms: Chorus, Cascade, Indigo and Maxim, and each has a specific role. Chorus is used to record and analyse the acoustic energy produced by fluid flow throughout the well system. Its role in this case was to help analysts pinpoint flow activity behind casing. Cascade uses proprietary thermofluid modeling to calculate flow profiles throughout the well system, and Indigo provides a number of complementary measurements, including temperature and conventional production logging information [PLT]. Maxim is the digital workspace where analysts develop the pre-survey diagnostic programme and carry out post-survey processing, data integration, modeling and data analysis.   The diagnostic programme in this case called for the well system to be surveyed in flowing and non-flowing states in order to expose the active flowing zones. True Flow diagnostics in this injection well show that 75% of injected water was bypassing the target reservoir through behind-casing flowpaths. Result The diagnostic results revealed that only 25% of the injected water was reaching the target reservoir A3. The other 75% was flowing to four behind-casing formation layers in A2, and A4 respectively (See logplot).   The Chorus flowing spectrum clearly shows the injection flow activity in each of the five formations, and Cascade modeling has quantified the respective flow rates. Open hole data confirmed that formation layers above the target zone were water filled and the analyst concluded that the injected water was flowing through behind casing cement channels. This was supported by the continuous acoustic energy spectrum from A3 to the top of A2.   Equipped with an accurate and complete flow diagnostic of the well system, the operator was able to target an effective remediation plan.

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    Case studies
    Case Study Total Flow

    Challenge Identifying the source of high water-cut is one of the most urgent priorities for petroleum and reservoir engineers to resolve.   A deviated production well was exhibiting an extremely high 95% water cut and the operator needed to establish the precise source of water production in order to plan an effective remediation.   The operator was perplexed because the open hole interpretation indicated very low water saturation in the target reservoir, suggesting that the water may be coming from another formation, or that the reservoir was experiencing water break-through. Conventional production logging diagnostics [PLT’s] would show where the water was entering the wellbore, but not necessarily its true source behind casing. Total Flow locates and quantifies wellbore flow and – critically – reservoir flow to reveal the dynamic interplay between both. Solution The operator selected TGT’s ‘Total Flow’ product to understand the flow dynamics of the well system and uncover the true source of excess water. Total Flow is delivered by the ‘True Flow’ diagnostic system.   TGT’s diagnostic systems combine several proprietary technology platforms that share a common structure and workflow comprising of ‘programmes & methods’, ‘tools & measurements’, ‘processing & modeling’ and ‘analysis & interpretation’.   The True Flow system uses four platforms, Chorus, Cascade, Indigo and Maxim, and each has a specific role. Chorus is used to record and analyse the acoustic energy produced by fluid flow throughout the well system and its role in this case was to help analysts pinpoint flow activity behind casing. Cascade uses proprietary thermofluid modeling to calculate flow profiles and Indigo provided a number of complementary measurements, including temperature and conventional production logging [PLT] information. Maxim is the digital workspace where analysts developed the pre-survey diagnostic programme and carried out post-survey processing, data integration, modeling and data analysis.   The diagnostic programme in this case called for the well system to be surveyed in flowing and non-flowing states in order to expose the active flowing zones. True Flow diagnostics in this production well show that more than 60% of produced water is not coming from the perforated reservoir unit A2. Whereas conventional PLT results imply 100% of the water is coming from the reservoir unit. Result The results revealed approximately 40% water production from the perforated reservoir A2, and the 60% from four additional behind-casing formations A1, A3, A4 and A5 [See logplot].   The Chorus spectrum in the logplot clearly shows the relative flow activity from each of the five zones, and Cascade modeling has quantified the respective flow rates.   Open hole data confirmed that each formation was water filled and the analyst concluded that water was channeling behind casing. The cement evaluation map indicated poor cement placement corroborating the presence of unwanted flowpaths through the cement.   Equipped with an accurate and complete flow diagnostic of the well system, the operator was able to target an effective remediation plan.